CBSE NotesCBSE Notes Class 11 BiologyNCERT Solutions Biology. Some examples are given below 2. Stem may be aerial, subaerial or underground. The shape and colour of corolla may vary greatly in shape. In this type, the main axis is condensed into a cup or flask-shaped, fleshy receptacle. (e) Nodulated Tap Roots In this the secondary, tertiary and sometimes primary roots bear many small irregular swellings called root nodules which contain countless, minute nitrogen fixing bacteria of the genus Rhizobium, e.g., groundnut (Arachis bypogea), clover (Medicago falcata), pea (Pisum sativum), etc. The true leaves of the plant are reduced to scales or spines, e.g., Ruscus, Asparagus. Describe the various types of placentations found in flowering plants. Datura stramonium is used in asthma. They become thick pillar-like and provide mechanical support to the giant trees, e.g., Banyan tree (Ficus benghalensis). Ovary is superior, whereas rest of the structures are inferior, e.g., Brassica, Hibiscus, Petunia. Phylloclade The various types of placentations found in flowering plants are: → Marginal placentation: The ovary in which the placenta forms a ridge along the ventral suture of the ovary and the ovules develop on two separate rows is known to have marginal placentation. (iv) Aeration Plants growing in waterlogged soil or marshy areas have special roots, i.e., pneumatophores for respiration. ii. The Inflorescence (d) Fruit A loculated capsule, rarely a berry. → These roots arise from any part of the plant other than the i. Aerial Stems * Bamboo is considered to be tallest herb, tallest shrub or arborescent grass. The stems may be branched or unbranched. (d) Stem branches provide support to its various parts. The placentation can be of different types The thalamus is the swollen end of the axis on which the floral whorls are arranged. Phyllotaxy Root hair zone is the most important part of the root for absorption of water (most of the water) from the soil. NCERT Solutions, Sample Papers, Extra Question, Study Materials, Notes, PSA, Question papers and solution for Class 8th, 9th, 10th, 11th and 12th. (a) Leaves store food as in the leaf base, e.g., Onion. Seed can be studied under two heads, i.e., external structure and internal structure. (c) It holds flower in suitable position, so that pollination and fertilistaion takes place. The leaf is attached to the stem by the leaf base. contain toxic alkaloid nicotine. Types of Leaves The arrangement of flowers in either basipetal (younger flowers occupy basal position, while older flowers towards the apex) or centrifugal (older towards center and younger towards periphery). The stigma is usually at the tip of style and is the receptive surface for pollen grains. Seed is a ripened ovule which contains an embryo or tiny plant with sufficient reserve food for the development of embyo. Ovary is one chambered but it becomes two-chambered due to formation of the false septum, e.g., Mustard and Argemone. Explain the basis for the different types of inflorescence in flowering plants. (b) Leaves contain stomata through, which gaseous exchange occurs, The leaves of one whorl generally alternate with those of the adjacent whorls in order to provide maximum exposure, e.g., Nerium (kaner), Alstonia. It mainly involves highly modified and densely crowded inflorescences. (e) There may be variation in the length of filament as in Salvia and mustard. (b) Turnip: In turnip the root is modified to store extra food. The thalamus grows along with the ovary to form a false fruit i.e. The shape, margin, apex, surface and extent of invision of lamina varies in different leaves. Vegetable ghee is prepared by using the oils after hydrogenation. These are thin, long and sensitive structures which can coil around a support. ii. (c) Napiform Roots The primary root is almost spherical (pitcher-shaped) at the base and tapers abruptly at the lower end, e.g., – beetroot (Beta vulgaris),-turnip (Brassica rapa), etc. It protects the root meristem from friction of the soil particles and also protect tender apex which allow the passage of root through cells, e.g., Lemna, Eichhornia. 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(d) In Salvinia, one leaf of each node is changed into roots that act as balancer for floating. (c) Parietal When the ovules develop on the inner wall of the ovary or on peripheral part, it is called parietal placentation. 11. Parallel Venation (i) Fruits are a source of vitamins, organic acids, minerals, pectin and sugars and some of them are used as vegetables, e.g., Okra (lady’s finger), tomato, pumpkin, cucumber, gourd, etc. The number of floral parts are written at right foot of the symbol. They protect the plants from browsing animals, e.g., Citrus, Duranta, Bougainvillea, Pomegranate, etc. (iii) Leaf In vegetative parts alternate and floral regions opposite, exstipulate, simple, rarely pinnately compound as in potato and tomato. These are green, flattened structures bearing several nodes and internodes. These are of two types twiners and climbers The further branches of the secondary roots are called tertiary roots and so on. Floral Characters Phyilodes develop usually vertically and possess fewer stomata hence, reduce transpiration. The Plant can be Described Briefly in the following Way CBSE Maths notes, CBSE physics notes, CBSE chemistry notes. They are called subaerial stems. It is found in dicot leaves. 14. Perigynous Flower It develops from the plumule of the embryo of a germinating seed. The leaf apex is modified into a lid, e.g, Nepenthes, Dischidia and Sarracenia. Such an arrangement is vi. The root hairs increase the exposed surface of the root for absorption. Leaves with stipules are called stipulate and those without them are termed as exstipulate. 2. A composite (multiple) fruit develops from an entire inflorescence. Morphologically, it is considered as a shoot bearing nodes and modified floral leaves. In plants, root is the non-green (due to absence of chlorophyll), cylindrical and descending part that normally grows downwards into the soil. * Runners These are subaerial weak stems that grow horizontally along the soil surface, e.g., Cynadon (lawn grass), Centella (brahmi booti), Oxalis, etc. This is required to designate a plant in its appropriate taxonomic position. Multiple (Composite) Fruits The study of various external features of the organism is knownas morphology. Insertion of Floral Parts (Forms of Thalamus) iii. The outermost covering of the seed is seed coat. Leaf Tendrils A typical root contains following five regions. The. It is the ascending part of the plant … Search. i.Leaf Base (Hypopodium) Secondary Functions (i) Root Usually tap roots. (iii) Timber Dalbergia sissoo (Indian redwood),Dalbergia latifolia (Indian rose wood), are important timber yielding trees of the family. Special Inflorescence The aggregate fruit is also called etaerio. (iii) Leaves Mostly basal, alternate, linear, exstipulate with parallel venation. (iv) Some fruits are also used as medicines, e.g., Emblica officinalis (amla), Datum stramonium (datura), Papaver somniferum (poppy), etc. (d) Gynoecium Bicarpellary, syncarpous, ovary superior, bilocular, placenta swollen with many ovules. Gram seed is a dicot seed formed in a small pod or legume. Pitcher i. Systematic Position (iv) Dye Indigofera tinctoria (indigo), Butea monosperma (flame of the forest) is used to produced red dye used as an astringent. (b) When stamens are attached to the perianth, the condition is called epiphyllous, e.g., Lily. Class 11 Morphology of Flowering Plants- Get here the Notes for Class 11 Morphology of Flowering Plants. They may arise from the nodes, e.g., Ivy, Pothos (money plant). (g) Assimilatory (Photosynthetic) Roots These roots have chlorophyll and can synthesise food, e.g., Aerial or hanging roots of some orchids. A narrow ridge called raphae runs from hilum to chalaza inside the furrow. ii. III. Aggregate (Etaerio) Fruits It is swollen in the middle and gradually tapers at both the ends, e.g., Radish (Raphanus sativus). It has a prominent median vein called the midrib. Monocots, the leaf base is said to be sheathing as it expands and partially and wholly surrounds the stem. It does not bear leaves, buds and not distinguished into nodes and inter nodes. Usually perennial herbs, perenating by underground rhizomes, corms or bulbs, rarely shrubs or climbers (e.g., Smilax, Gloriosa, etc). (e) Seed Endospermic, embryo curved or straight. (d) Vexillary When the largest petal overlaps the two lateral petals which in turn overlap the two smallest anterior petals (keel), the aestivation is called as vexillary or papilionaceous. Petiole help hold the leaf blade towards light. They are non-green, store food as means of perennation and vegetative propagation. arranged at the base of this inflorescence. (i) Pulses and Vegetables The family is an important source of pulses and vegetables. 3. radicle of seeds. It develops at the node and bears a bud in its axil called as the axillary bud, which later develops into a branch. (b) Erect Stems These stems are strong enough to remain erect or upright without any external support. Describe the arrangement of floral members in relation to their insertion on thalamus? A small pore called micropyle present between the hilum and pointed end. The family is represented by 90 genera and 2800 species distributed in both tropical and temperate regions. Description of this formula is Ebracteate, actinomorphic, bisexual, bimerous, calyx-4, polysepalous, in two whorls of two each corolla-4, polypetalous, cruciform, androecium-6, polyandrous, tetradynamous in two whorls, one with two, gynoecium—bicarpellary syncarpous, superior. The leaf base is expanded to carry out photosynthesis. It is meant for sexual reproduction. (i) Inflorescence Simple raceme, axillary cyme or solitary. The ovary is called inferior, e.g., Helianthus (sunflower), Cucurbita (pumpkin), Pyrus (apple). A true fruit has two parts pericarp and the seeds. The entire leaf or a part of a leaf may be modified into a pointed structure called a spine, as in Opuntia. iii. In some seeds, the tegmen and testa are fused. Primary Functions This zone contains mature cells. Bladder (i) Fixation Root provides fixation to the plants with soil. Habit (d) They protect axillary and terminal bud from mechanical injury and desiccation. iv. (ix) Medicinal Plants The flowers of Trifolium pratense are used in whooping cough. Revise all the important topics covered in the Class 11 Biology chapter of Anatomy of Flowering Plants with Class 11 Biology Chapter 6 Notes. A seed is made up of seed coats and an embryo. (ii) Shoot system The aerial shoot system develops from the plumule embryo. Morphology of Flowering Plants Class 11 Notes Biology Chapter 5. (a) Valvate Petals come to each other but do not overlap, e.g., mustard (Brassica). Cymose Inflorescence Symmetry of A Flower Fruit is a mature or ripened ovary, developed after fertilisation. Vegetative Characters (b) Twisted Regular overlapping of petals occurs in which margin of one petal overlap with the next one petal, e.g., China rose (Hibiscus rosa sinensis). I. Family-Fabaceae Modification of Adventitious Roots Depending on the number of carpel present may be free or united, gynoecium can be of following types (ii) Medicines Aloe leaves are used to cure piles, liver problems. Each sucker contains one or more nodes with scale leaves and axillary buds, e.g., Mentha (podina), Chrysanthemum (guldaudi). The parthenocarpic fruits do not have seeds. Adventitious Root System (b) Fusiform Roots The primary root is spindle-shaped. It continuously grows and produces lateral roots called secondary roots. Green light is the most effective wavelength region of the visible spectrum in sunlight for photosynthesis (a) Apocarpous When more than one carpel is present, they may be free are called apocarpous, e.g., Lotus and rose. The thalamus grows upwards to completely develop the ovary and also fused inseparably with the latter. (c) The stamens in a flower may either remain free, i.e., polyandrous or may be united in varying degrees. 3. Morphe—form; logos—study). 1. In some species underground bulbs or rhizomes. It is responsible for the growth of the root. The placentation are of different types namely, marginal, axile, parietal, basal, central and free central. Stolons, also propagate vegetatively like runners, e.g, Fragaria verica (strawberry), Jasminum (jasmine), Mentha piperita (peppermint). The sheath is capable of growth. When the veinlets form a network, the venation is called reticulate. * Fruits developed from any part of the flower along with ovary is called false fruits. A pair of leaves axises at each node and opposite to each other, e.g., Calotropis and Psidium guajava (guava plants). Coloured sepals attract insects for pollination. of the seed is short-lived and is replaced by a large number of The * nodes and internodes are not distinguished, e.g., carrot, radish, turnip, etc. The subaerial stem are also divided into two forms These provide mechanical support, e.g., Saccharum officinarum (sugarcane), Zea mays (maize). Petiole (Mesopodium) (a) Pinnately Compound Leaves In these leaves, the incision of lamina is directed towards the midrib, which is known as rachis. MORPHOLOGY OF FLOWERING PLANTS NOTES. Symbols for Number of Floral Parts However, they all are characterised by the presence of roots, stems, leaves, flowers and fruits. i. (a) Fasiculated Roots These arises in clusters from the base of the stem, e.g., Dahlia, Asparagus. It helps to avoid overcrowding and provide every leaf with optimum sunshine. MCQ Questions for Class 11 Biology: Ch 5 Morphology of Flowering Plants. It may be two bundles, i.e., diadelphous as in pea or into more than two bundles, i.e., polyadelphous as in citrus. The lamina of a simple leaf may be incised but the incisions do not touch the midrib. (f) Seeds Endospermic, embryo straight. → Younger flowers are present at the base of the inflorescence, (e) Stilt Roots These are small thick supporting roots growing obliquely from the basal nodes of the main stem. The leaves also consist of two lateral outgrowths called stipules at their bases. The lamina can have various types of incisions which may reach upto half (fid), more than half (partite) or near the base or midrib (sect). It is made up of units like sepals. * The fruit of mango and coconut are also known as drupe, as it develop from monocarpellary superior ovaries and have only one seed. It is distributed all over the world. The ovules after fertilisation develops into seeds. It is light or dark brown in colour. 2. An endosperm is absent. (iii) Floral Formula It is distributed all over the world except the Arctic regions. The aerial stems have two forms, i.e., reduced stem and erect stem. i. In some plants, the stem grow in the soil and are called underground stems. The bulblets grow into new plants, e.g., Allium cepa (onion), Allium sativum (garlic). It is the third whorl of flower composed of stamens or microsporangium. It produces thinner lateral veins which in turn branch to form veinlets. 4 Vegetative Characters They show unlimited growth. The leaf. If more than two leaves arise at a node and form a whorl, it is called whorled. It forms the permanent zone of the root and also gives out lateral roots from the interior part of this region, e.g., In dicots and gymnosperms. Stage Design - A Discussion between Industry Professionals. (a) Rhizome It is a prostrate thick stem growing horizontally beneath the soil surface. Explain with suitable examples the different types of phyllotaxy? Habit 10. (c) Androecium Stamens 5, epipetalous, alternating with, petals, inserted in corolla tube, filaments usually of unequal length, anthers bithecous. (a) When stamens are attached to the petals, they are epipetalous, e.g., Brinjal. Symbols used in Floral Formula The pattern of arrangement of leaves on the stem or branch is called phyllotaxy. It is the region where primary tissues differentiate into the root. Petals are usually brightly coloured to attract insects for pollination. It is highly reduced and is a cup-shaped involucre of five bracts having nectariferous glands. The flower is the reproductive unit in the angiosperms. It is a large family, commonly called as the ‘potato family, it is widely distributed in tropics, sub-tropics and even temperate zones. Growing Point (Meristematic) Zone It occurs in lower plants-cryptogams (non-flowering plants), higher plants~Hyphaene (palm), Canscora, screw pine, etc. Flowers can be actomorphic and zygomorphic on the basis of symmetry. Simple Leaves Placentation: The arrangement of ovules within the ovary is known as placentation. Ovary is the enlarged basal part on which lies the elongated tube, the style. Branching in stems may be dichotomous and lateral. Megaspores are produced within the megasporangium.’A carpel consists of three parts, i.e., stigma, style and ovary. In plants like bean, gram and pea, the endosperm is not present in mature seeds (i.e., non-endospermous seeds). It is a green, short lived and flattened petiole or rachis of a leaf, which performs the function of photosynthesis, e.g, Australian Acacia. A flower arises in the axil of a leaf like structure called bract. Such an arrangement is The study of external features of an organism is called its morphology. (a) Perianth Tepal six (3 + 3), often united into tube, valvate aestivation. Tap root: Originates from radicle. (c) Gynoecium Tricarpellary, syncarpous, trilocular with many ovules, axile placentation, rarely unilocular with parietal placentation, ovary superior, style simple with three lobed stigma. What type of modification of root is found in the, 2. ii. It is used for chewing, smoking and snuff. Perisperm; 3. Every male flower is represented by a single stalked stamen borne in the axil of a scaly bract, e.g, Euphorbia. iii. Tendrils can be of following types on the basis of their origin (d) Axillary Arise from axiallary buds, e.g., Passiflora (passion flower). In dicots, the leaf base bears two lateral outgrowths called stipules. The stem thorns are stiff, woody, sharp and pointed. 1. iii. If the leaves are present on the pedical, they are called bracteoles. However, some monocot leaves like Smilax, Dioscorea and Alocasia also show reticulate venation. (e) Bulb It is a highly reduced disc like stem. A single large female flower is present in the centre of the cup and scorpioid male flowers surrounded this female flower. 4. The outermost covering is the seed coat. The gum of Butea monosperma (dhak) is useful for treating dysentery and diarrhoea. Aestivation Seeds can be classified into two different types based on the number of cotyledons and presence or absence of endosperms, i.e., dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous seed. In subaerial stems, some part lives underground, whereas, the remaining part of the stem is aerial. ii. Underground Stems (ii) The wall of the ovary thickens and ripens into pericarp (fruit wall). Register online for Biology tuition on Vedantu.com to … MCQ Questions for Class 11 Biology: Ch 6 Anatomy of Flowering Plants. Prickles Vedantu is one of the best educational platforms where you can get reliable study materials. The pneumatophores or aerophores or respiratory roots grow vertically upward and are negatively geotropic. Certified Information Systems Security Professional (CISSP) Remil ilmi. Pericarp ii. It is a petiole modified into a tendril to hold the pitcher upright. Whorled (Verticillate) Phyllotaxy Structure of Monocotyledonous Seed in Pyrus malus (apple). Types of Fruits (c) Apical bud These are modified to form tendrils, e.g., Vitis vinifera. In this type, flower can be divided into two identical halves through only one particular vertical plane, e.g., Ocimum, Cassia. For example, the floral formula ofBrassica (mustard) represented as given by (c) Storage of water in the cells of some succulent plants, e.g., Aloe. The root is covered at the apex by a thimble or cap-like structure called the root cap. The placenta develops directly on the thalamus. Morphology of Flowering Plants MCQ With Answers PDF. The leaf is a lateral, generally flattened structure borne on the stem. whether the apex gets converted into a flower or continues to grow, two major types of inflorescences are defined – racemose and cymose. It is of following types (ii) Oil Edible oils are obtained from the seeds of Arachis hypogaea (groundnut) and Glycine max (soyabean). iii. (b) Nodulous Roots These roots have swellings occur only near the tips, e.g., Arrow root (Maranta), amia haldi (Curcuma amadd). A leaf is called compound when the incision of the leaf blade goes down to the midrib (rachis) or to the petiole so that the leaf is broken up into a number of segments called leaflets. 4. The aerial stems of some plants trail or creep on the ground. These are modified stems and act as climbing organs. (a) Fibrous Roots The primary root soon gets replaced by a cluster of slender, thread-like roots originating from the base of the stem, e.g, Triticum vulgare (wheat), Oryza sativa (rice), Allium sepa (onion). Epigynous Flower (i) Inflorescence Mostly racemose, sometimes cymose, rarely solitary. Download Morphology of Flowering Plants NEET Notes PDF, Morphology of Flowering Plants Biology Class 11 Notes, Morphology of Flowering Plants PDF Download:-Hello dear students, get Free Morphology of Flowering Plants study material PDF.This is Morphology of Flowering Plants Notes PDF helpful for aspirants of NEET and other exams during last-minute revision. The Root:The root is underground part of the plant and develops from elongation of radicle of the embryo. (b) Axile When the placenta is axial and the ovules are attached to it in a multilocular ovary, the placentation is called axile, e.g., China rose, tomato and lemon. ii. It is the stalk of a leaf. INCOMMING TRAFFIC. Radish ( Raphanus sativus ) upwards forming a cup like structure called root. Medicines Aloe leaves are reduced to a small ( about 1 mm in length ) thin-walled region having protoplasm! 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Gradually tapers at both the ends, e.g., Brassica, Hibiscus,.... And Glycine max ( soyabean ) near the axillary buds of the plants with soil or a filament and anther... Bud stage, i.e., non-endospermous seeds ) aleurone layer aerophores or respiratory roots grow as the fruit consists one. Simple fruits a simple fruit develops from the plumule embryo Formula symbols for number of fibrous adventitious roots so.... Of floral parts are written at right foot of the flower along with ovary is known as.... Stems, some monocot leaves like of Euphorbia, the endosperm is bulky and stores food ). ) Medicines Atropa bellodona is used for relieving pain and treating cough branch to form tap root the! Dicot seed formed in a flower is the stalk of a leaf like protect! Apex gets converted into a flower arises in the length of the leaf is attached to the,! Germinating seed female flower is represented by 90 genera and 3700 species showing world wide distribution ( )...